The Canary Islands, an archipelago located off the northwest coast of Africa, are known for their stunning natural beauty and rich cultural heritage. The islands have a unique flag that represents their history, meaning, and symbolism.
The flag of the Canary Islands consists of three equal-sized vertical stripes of white, blue, and yellow. The white stripe represents peace and purity, while the blue stripe symbolizes the Atlantic Ocean that surrounds the islands. The yellow stripe represents the sunny climate and the golden beaches that attract tourists from all over the world.
The flag also features the coat of arms of the Canary Islands, which is located in the center. The coat of arms depicts two dogs (referred to as “Canaries”) holding up a royal crown. This image represents the role of the Canary Islands as a strategic stopover for European ships during the Age of Exploration. It also symbolizes the islands’ connection to Spain, as the crown represents the Spanish monarchy.
Overall, the flag of the Canary Islands is a powerful symbol of the islands’ natural beauty, cultural heritage, and historical significance. It represents the peace and purity of the islands, as well as their strong connection to the Atlantic Ocean and Spain. Whether waving proudly in the wind or flying high on a flagpole, the flag of the Canary Islands is a symbol of pride for the people who call these islands home.
Origins and Early History
The flag of the Canary Islands has a rich and fascinating history that dates back centuries. The origins of the flag can be traced to the early inhabitants of the islands, who were known as the Guanches.
The Guanches were a pre-Hispanic people who inhabited the Canary Islands before the arrival of the Europeans. They had their own distinct culture and customs, and the flag was a symbol of their identity and unity.
The flag of the Canary Islands consists of three vertical stripes of white, blue, and yellow. The white stripe represents peace and purity, the blue stripe represents the ocean that surrounds the islands, and the yellow stripe represents the sun that shines down on the islands.
Over the centuries, the flag of the Canary Islands has undergone some changes, but its basic design and symbolism have remained the same. Today, the flag is a symbol of the Canary Islands’ rich history and unique cultural identity.
Evolution of the Design
The flag of the Canary Islands has undergone several changes throughout its history. The design of the flag has evolved over time to reflect the political and cultural changes that have taken place in the islands.
Originally, the flag of the Canary Islands consisted of three vertical stripes of blue, white, and yellow, with the coat of arms of the islands in the center. This design was used during the early period of Spanish colonization in the 15th century.
In the 18th century, the flag underwent a significant change. The stripes were changed to horizontal, with the blue stripe on top, followed by the white stripe, and the yellow stripe at the bottom. The coat of arms was also modified, with the addition of a crown and laurel wreath.
New Flag Design
In 1982, with the establishment of the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands, a new flag design was adopted. The current flag consists of three equal-sized vertical stripes of blue, white, and yellow. The blue stripe represents the sky and the sea, the white stripe symbolizes purity and innocence, and the yellow stripe represents the sun and the sand of the islands’ beaches.
The flag also features the coat of arms of the Canary Islands, which includes a blue field with seven silver islands, representing the seven main islands of the archipelago. Above the islands is a silver crown, symbolizing the islands’ status as an autonomous community.
Symbolism and Meaning
The design of the flag reflects the unique identity and history of the Canary Islands. The colors and symbols on the flag represent the natural beauty of the islands and their connection to the sea and the sun. The flag is a powerful symbol of the islands’ autonomy and their pride in their cultural heritage.
Today, the flag of the Canary Islands is proudly displayed throughout the islands, representing the unity and diversity of its people.
Colors and Patterns
The flag of the Canary Islands features a combination of colors and patterns that hold significant meaning for the islands. The flag consists of three vertical stripes of equal width, from left to right: white, blue, and yellow. These colors represent various aspects of the archipelago’s history and culture.
The white stripe on the flag represents purity, peace, and clarity. It symbolizes the pristine beauty of the Canary Islands’ natural landscapes, including its sandy beaches, volcanic formations, and the white foam of the ocean waves. White also represents the peaceful and harmonious coexistence of the different cultures and communities that make up the islands.
The blue stripe on the flag represents the ocean that surrounds the Canary Islands. It symbolizes the archipelago’s strong connection with the sea, which has played a vital role in its history and economy. Blue also represents the calmness and stability of the islands, as well as their openness to the world and their welcoming nature.
The yellow stripe on the flag represents the sun, which is abundant in the Canary Islands due to their location close to the equator. Yellow symbolizes the islands’ warm and sunny climate, as well as their vibrant and energetic atmosphere. It also represents the islands’ rich agricultural traditions and the fertility of their soil.
Overall, the colors of the Canary Islands’ flag reflect the beauty, tranquility, and vitality that define this archipelago. The flag’s simple yet meaningful design encapsulates the essence of the islands and their unique identity.
Official Adoption and Recognition
The flag of the Canary Islands was officially adopted and recognized as the autonomous community’s flag on August 16, 1982. This marked a significant moment in the history of the islands and their identity.
The design of the flag was chosen through a public contest held in 1981. The winning design was created by a student named Eduardo Díaz Dorta, who took inspiration from the Canarian coat of arms, incorporating the blue and white colors that represent the sky and the sea surrounding the islands.
Recognition and Meaning
The flag of the Canary Islands holds deep symbolism for the archipelago. It is recognized as a symbol of the islands’ culture, history, and identity. The blue and white colors represent the sky and the sea, reflecting the natural beauty and geographical features of the Canary Islands.
The coat of arms on the flag features several symbols including the seven islands, a blue ribbon with the motto “Oceano” (Ocean), and two dogs. The seven islands represent each of the main islands in the archipelago: Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, La Palma, La Gomera, and El Hierro. The blue ribbon symbolizes the importance of the ocean to the islands’ economy and culture. The two dogs, known as “Presa Canario” or the Canary Mastiff, represent the islands’ indigenous breed.
Significance and Pride
The official adoption and recognition of the flag of the Canary Islands holds great significance for the people of the islands. It serves as a symbol of their unity, cultural heritage, and unique identity as a distinct community within Spain. The flag is proudly displayed during official ceremonies, events, and festivals, showcasing the pride and love the people have for their islands.
Influence of Indigenous Cultures
The flag of the Canary Islands is a vibrant representation of the region’s rich history and the influence of indigenous cultures. The design of the flag incorporates several symbols and colors that are deeply rooted in the traditions and heritage of the Canarian people.
Before the arrival of the Spanish colonizers, the Canary Islands were inhabited by indigenous peoples known as the Guanches. These Berber-originating people had their own distinct culture and traditions, which are still celebrated and honored today.
The symbol at the center of the Canary Islands’ flag, known as the Coat of Arms, represents the indigenous populations. It features a blue field with three white triangles pointing towards the center. This triangular shape is believed to symbolize the sacred Mount Teide, which holds great significance in the Guanche mythology.
The colors used in the flag, blue and yellow, also have ties to the indigenous cultures of the Canary Islands. Blue represents the Atlantic Ocean that surrounds the archipelago, while yellow symbolizes the sun that shines brightly over these volcanic islands.
The combination of blue and yellow reflects the natural beauty and geographical features of the Canary Islands. It serves as a reminder of the strong connection between the land, the sea, and the indigenous traditions that have shaped the identity of the Canary Islands.
Overall, the flag of the Canary Islands pays homage to the indigenous cultures that have existed on the islands for thousands of years. It serves as a visual representation of the deep-rooted history and vibrant heritage of the Canarian people.
Significance in the Geographic Context
The flag of the Canary Islands holds great significance in the geographic context, representing the unique identity and natural beauty of the islands.
The Canary Islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of Africa, are a group of volcanic islands known for their diverse landscapes and rich biodiversity. The flag, with its vertical tricolor design, reflects the dominant colors found in the islands’ natural environment.
The white stripe at the hoist symbolizes the fine sandy beaches that can be found on the islands, which are famous tourist attractions. The blue stripe in the center represents the surrounding Atlantic Ocean, highlighting the islands’ maritime location and the importance of the sea in their history and economy.
The yellow stripe at the fly end signifies the sunshine that bathes the islands year-round, making them a popular destination for those seeking a warm climate. It also symbolizes the golden sand dunes that can be found in certain areas of the islands.
The coat of arms in the flag’s center is another important symbol of the islands’ geographic context. It depicts the volcanic nature of the islands, with the peak of Teide, the highest point in Spain, at the forefront. The palm tree and the seven silver stars represent the seven main islands of the archipelago: Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, La Palma, La Gomera, and El Hierro.
Overall, the flag of the Canary Islands serves as a reminder of the islands’ unique geographical position and natural beauty, capturing the essence of this archipelago in a simple yet meaningful design.
Historical and Cultural Representations
The flag of the Canary Islands is a representation of the rich history and culture of the islands. The design of the flag incorporates various historical elements that symbolize the unique identity of the Canary Islands.
- The blue and white stripes on the flag represent the sea that surrounds the islands and the waves that crash against their shores. The islands have a long history of seafaring and have been influenced by various cultures from around the world.
- The coat of arms in the center of the flag includes several symbols that are significant to the history of the Canary Islands. The lions represent the Kingdom of Castile, while the castles symbolize the Kingdom of Leon. Both these kingdoms played a major role in the history of the islands.
- The inscriptions on the coat of arms are in Latin and translate to “Oceano et Mare,” which means “Ocean and Sea.” This reflects the geographic location of the Canary Islands, as they are situated in the Atlantic Ocean.
- The flag also features seven stars, which represent the seven main islands of the archipelago: Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera, and El Hierro. Each of these islands has its own unique history and cultural heritage.
- Overall, the flag of the Canary Islands serves as a visual representation of the historical and cultural significance of the islands. It showcases their connection to the sea, their colonial past, and their individual identities as distinct islands within the archipelago.
Importance in Local Identity
The flag of the Canary Islands holds great importance in the local identity of the islands. It serves as a symbol of unity and representation for the Canary Island residents.
The flag is a powerful reminder of the rich history and culture of the islands. Its bold colors and distinctive design evoke a sense of pride and belonging among the people of the Canary Islands.
For many, the flag represents the unique heritage and traditions that have shaped the islands over the centuries. It is a symbol of the strong connection between the Canary Islands and its people.
The flag is often displayed during local festivities and cultural events. It can be seen waving proudly from buildings, poles, and even worn as a badge or on clothing. The presence of the flag creates a sense of identity and pride among the residents, fostering a strong bond within the community.
Furthermore, the flag serves as a visual representation of the islands’ values, beliefs, and aspirations. It is a testament to the resilience, strength, and spirit of the Canary Island residents.
In conclusion, the flag of the Canary Islands plays a crucial role in shaping and expressing the local identity of the islands’ residents. It symbolizes the rich history, culture, and values that define the Canary Islands, creating a sense of unity and pride among its people.
Variations and Subtle Differences
Although the flag of the Canary Islands is officially recognized, there are some variations and subtle differences that can be seen in different versions of the flag. These variations are often due to artistic interpretations and regional preferences.
One of the main differences that can be found in the flag of the Canary Islands is the shade of blue used for the background. While the official flag uses a vibrant blue color, some variations may feature a darker or lighter shade of blue. These differences in color can give the flag a unique appearance while still maintaining its overall symbolism.
Another variation that can be seen in the flag of the Canary Islands is the arrangement of the seven white stars. While the official flag features seven stars arranged in a circular pattern, some versions may have the stars arranged in a different formation. This variation adds a touch of individuality to the flag while still representing the seven main islands of the archipelago.
In addition to variations in color and star arrangement, there are also regional preferences when it comes to the flag of the Canary Islands. Some islands may have their own specific versions of the flag that incorporate local symbols or additional elements. These variations are often used to emphasize the unique identity and culture of each individual island.
For example, the island of Tenerife may have a version of the flag that includes a volcano symbol to represent Mount Teide, the highest peak in Spain and a prominent landmark on the island. Similarly, the island of Gran Canaria may have a version of the flag that incorporates a symbol representing the Maspalomas Dunes, a famous natural landmark on the island.
These regional preferences and variations in the flag of the Canary Islands demonstrate the pride and individuality of each island within the archipelago. While the overall symbolism and meaning of the flag remain consistent, these subtle differences add an extra layer of cultural richness and diversity.
Usage in Official Ceremonies
The flag of the Canary Islands holds significant importance in the region and is often used in official ceremonies and events.
During important political and cultural events, the flag is proudly displayed to represent the identity and pride of the Canary Islands. It is commonly flown alongside the Spanish national flag, symbolizing the unique status of the islands as an autonomous community within Spain.
On national holidays such as Canary Islands Day, the flag takes center stage in parades and festivities. It is often carried by representatives of the local government, military, and cultural organizations, demonstrating unity and solidarity among the people.
Protocol and Etiquette
There is a set protocol and etiquette in place for the proper usage of the Canary Islands flag in official ceremonies. It is important for individuals and organizations to respect the flag and display it correctly.
When the flag is displayed alone, it should be raised and lowered with the same respect as the national flag. It should never be displayed in a position of inferiority or disrespect.
During ceremonies or processions, the flag should be carried by an individual or held by two people. It should be positioned to the right side of the person or group carrying it.
The flag of the Canary Islands serves as a powerful symbol of the region’s history, culture, and identity. Its usage in official ceremonies reinforces the values and unity of the Canary Islands as a distinct community within Spain.
By proudly displaying the flag, individuals and organizations pay homage to the islands’ unique heritage and their commitment to preserving and promoting their cultural identity.
Overall, the flag’s usage in official ceremonies showcases the pride and significance attached to the Canary Islands, making it an integral part of the region’s rich history and symbolism.
Role in Tourism and Branding
The flag of the Canary Islands plays a significant role in the tourism industry and branding of the islands. With its distinctive design and vibrant colors, the flag serves as a powerful symbol that represents the unique identity and rich cultural heritage of the Canary Islands.
When tourists visit the islands, they often encounter the flag displayed in various places, such as hotels, restaurants, and shops. This not only creates a sense of place but also helps to establish a strong visual identity and brand recognition for the islands. The flag serves as a visual cue that instantly associates any product or service with the Canary Islands.
The flag’s symbolism is commonly used in tourism marketing materials, advertisements, and promotional campaigns. It represents the natural beauty of the islands, including their volcanic landscapes, stunning beaches, and diverse flora and fauna. The blue and white waves symbolize the surrounding ocean, while the yellow stripes represent the abundant sunshine and warm climate.
In addition to its role in branding, the flag also serves as a representation of the Canarian people’s pride in their heritage and culture. It is often displayed during festivals, celebrations, and sporting events, fostering a sense of community and unity among the local residents. The flag acts as a unifying symbol that helps to create a shared cultural identity and sense of belonging.
Overall, the flag of the Canary Islands plays a vital role in promoting tourism and establishing a strong brand identity. Its powerful symbolism and widespread recognition contribute to attracting visitors and enticing them to explore the beauty and culture of the islands.
The canary flag of the Canary Islands holds a significant place in the contemporary culture of the archipelago. It is not only a symbol of the islands’ identity, but it also represents their history, traditions, and values.
Many contemporary interpretations of the canary flag include its vibrant colors and powerful symbolism. The blue color in the top left corner represents the sky and the sea surrounding the islands, symbolizing the connection between the land and the heavens. The white stripe symbolizes purity, innocence, and peace, reflecting the peaceful nature of the islanders.
The presence of the canary bird in the center of the flag represents the islands’ rich biodiversity and their nickname “the Land of the Canaries.” The yellow color of the bird symbolizes the sun and the energy of the islands, highlighting their warm and welcoming atmosphere.
Tourism and Commerce
The canary flag has become an important symbol in the tourism and commerce industries of the Canary Islands. It is commonly seen in hotels, restaurants, and shops, attracting tourists and representing the local culture.
The flag is often used in promotional materials, such as brochures and websites, to showcase the beauty and uniqueness of the islands. It serves as a reminder of the archipelago’s natural wonders, stunning landscapes, and vibrant culture, making it an ideal destination for travelers.
Unity and Pride
The canary flag also plays a vital role in fostering unity and pride among the residents of the Canary Islands. It is proudly displayed during cultural events, festivals, and sports competitions, representing the sense of belonging and identity of the islanders.
By waving the canary flag, the people of the Canary Islands show their love for their homeland and celebrate their unique cultural heritage. The flag serves as a unifying symbol, bringing together individuals from different backgrounds and creating a sense of community among the island’s residents.
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Popular Representations in Art and Design
The flag of the Canary Islands, with its distinct combination of colors and symbols, has inspired numerous popular representations in art and design. The iconic image of the canary, which is prominently featured on the flag, has become a symbol associated with the archipelago.
Artists and designers have incorporated the flag’s elements into various forms of artistic expression, including paintings, sculptures, and graphic designs. The vibrant colors of blue, white, and yellow are often used to depict the flag in these artistic representations, capturing the essence of the Canary Islands.
One of the most common ways the flag is depicted in art is through paintings. Artists often showcase the flag in landscapes that accurately represent the beauty of the Canary Islands, with their lush greenery, towering mountains, and stunning coastlines. These paintings not only highlight the flag’s symbolic value but also serve as a homage to the natural beauty of the archipelago.
Sculptures inspired by the flag of the Canary Islands can be found in public spaces across the islands. The canary, as a central symbol on the flag, takes on a three-dimensional form in these sculptures. Whether made from stone or metal, these sculptures capture the spirit of the flag and serve as a testament to the islands’ cultural identity.
In graphic design, the flag of the Canary Islands has been incorporated into logos, posters, and promotional materials. The bold colors and strong graphical elements of the flag make it an eye-catching and instantly recognizable symbol. From tourist brochures to event banners, the flag often takes center stage in the design, helping to create a strong visual identity for the Canary Islands.
Overall, the flag of the Canary Islands has had a significant impact on art and design, inspiring countless representations that celebrate the archipelago’s natural beauty and cultural heritage. Whether it’s through paintings, sculptures, or graphic designs, the flag continues to be a powerful symbol that represents the spirit and identity of the Canary Islands.
Usage in Sports and Sporting Events
The flag of the Canary Islands has become an iconic symbol in various sports and sporting events. Its distinctive colors and design make it easily recognizable, and it is often proudly displayed by athletes and fans alike.
In many sporting competitions, such as football matches, the flag of the Canary Islands can be seen waved by supporters in the stands. This act not only shows pride in their region but also serves as a symbol of unity and solidarity among the fans.
Some sports teams and organizations from the Canary Islands incorporate elements of the flag into their logos and team uniforms. The colors of the flag, blue and white, are often used to represent the team’s identity and connection to the region.
The flag is also frequently used in sporting events held in the Canary Islands. Whether it’s a marathon, a cycling race, or a surfing competition, the flag of the Canary Islands can be seen prominently displayed throughout the event, creating a vibrant and festive atmosphere.
Athletes from the Canary Islands who achieve significant success in their respective sports often proudly carry their flag during victory celebrations or award ceremonies. It serves as a visual representation of their accomplishments and their pride in representing their region on the global stage.
The usage of the flag of the Canary Islands in sports and sporting events highlights the strong connection between the region and its athletes. It symbolizes their passion, determination, and resilience, and serves as a reminder of the rich culture and history of the Canary Islands.
In conclusion, the flag of the Canary Islands is not only a symbol of regional identity but also a powerful emblem used in sports and sporting events to represent unity, pride, and achievement. Its presence in various athletic contexts showcases the deep-rooted connection between the flag, the Canary Islands, and the world of sports.
International Symbolism and Recognition
The flag of the Canary Islands holds deep symbolism and has gained recognition not only within Spain but also internationally. The distinctive features of the flag have contributed to its recognition globally, representing the unique identity of the Canary Islands.
The design of the flag incorporates various symbols that hold significant meaning to the islands and its people. The blue stripes represent the ocean surrounding the archipelago, emphasizing the island’s close relationship with the sea. The white stripes symbolize the purity and brightness of the Canary Islands’ landscape, reflecting the pristine nature and beauty of the islands.
The central coat of arms displayed on the flag showcases the islands’ historical connection with Spain and its conquest by the Crown of Castile. The yellow color of the coat of arms represents the islands’ rich history and heritage, paying homage to the indigenous Guanche people who inhabited the Canary Islands before the Spanish colonization.
The flag of the Canary Islands is recognized within Spain as an official symbol of the autonomous community. It is widely displayed in public buildings, official events, and celebrations throughout the islands, serving as a representation of the region’s unique identity and historical heritage.
Internationally, the flag has gained recognition within the European Union and is often flown alongside the national flags of member states during official events and meetings. It has also become a symbol of tourism and is commonly used in promotional materials to attract visitors to the Canary Islands.
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These examples demonstrate the international recognition and acceptance of the flag as a symbol of the Canary Islands’ unique cultural heritage and identity.
Flag Display Guidelines
When displaying the flag of the Canary Islands, it is important to follow certain guidelines to show proper respect and honor to the islands and their symbolism. Here are some guidelines to keep in mind:
1. Correct Orientation: The flag should always be displayed in the correct orientation, with the white stripe on top and the blue stripe on the bottom.
2. Full Display: Whenever possible, the flag should be displayed in its full form, with all three vertical stripes clearly visible. This represents the unity and diversity of the Canary Islands.
3. Size and Proportion: The flag should be displayed in proper size and proportion. Ideally, the length of the flag should be twice its width.
4. Proper Lighting: The flag should be well-lit when displayed, ensuring that it is clearly visible and can be easily identified.
5. Respectful Handling: When handling the flag, it is important to do so with respect and care. Avoid allowing the flag to touch the ground and handle it gently to prevent any damage.
6. Display on Holidays: The flag of the Canary Islands is often displayed on special holidays and occasions, such as the National Day of the Canary Islands on May 30th. Consider displaying the flag on these occasions to show your support and solidarity with the islands.
By following these guidelines, you can demonstrate proper respect and honor for the flag of the Canary Islands, recognizing its historical significance and symbolism.
Legacy and Future Developments
The flag of the Canary Islands holds a significant legacy and represents the rich history and culture of the islands. The canary, embedded in the design, has long been a symbol of the region’s unique biodiversity and natural beauty. As the islands have become a popular tourist destination, the flag serves as an emblem of their unique identity.
However, the flag also represents the ongoing development and growth of the Canary Islands. With its vibrant blue and white colors, the flag symbolizes the bright future and aspirations of the islands. It serves as a reminder of the region’s potential for innovation and progress.
Looking forward, there are several future developments that the Canary Islands aim to pursue. One such development is the further exploration of renewable energy sources. The islands’ natural resources, such as wind, sun, and water, provide ample opportunities for the expansion of renewable energy infrastructure. This commitment to sustainability and clean energy will not only benefit the local population but also contribute to global efforts to combat climate change.
In addition, the Canary Islands are also focusing on strengthening their cultural heritage and promoting tourism. The islands’ unique traditions, folklore, and historical sites attract visitors from all over the world. Efforts are being made to preserve and showcase these cultural treasures, ensuring that future generations can continue to appreciate and learn from them.
Furthermore, the Canary Islands aim to enhance their educational system and promote research and innovation. By investing in education and fostering intellectual curiosity, the islands hope to attract and nurture talented individuals who can contribute to various fields, including science, technology, and the arts.
In conclusion, the legacy of the flag of the Canary Islands represents the region’s rich history and serves as a reminder of its unique identity. Looking ahead, the islands are committed to sustainable development, cultural preservation, and innovation, ensuring a prosperous and vibrant future for the Canary Islands.
What is the history of the Flag of the Canary Islands?
The Flag of the Canary Islands has a long history that dates back to before the 15th century when the islands were conquered by Castilian forces. The exact origins of the flag are not known, but it is believed to have been influenced by the flags of the Spanish kingdoms of Castile and Leon.
What does the Flag of the Canary Islands look like?
The Flag of the Canary Islands consists of three equal vertical bands of white, blue, and yellow. The blue band is wider than the other two and features the coat of arms of the islands in the upper hoist-side corner.
What do the colors on the Flag of the Canary Islands represent?
The colors on the Flag of the Canary Islands have different meanings. The blue symbolizes the ocean and the sky, reflecting the islands’ geographical location. The white represents purity, peace, and excellence. The yellow represents the sun, abundance, and vitality.
What is the significance of the coat of arms on the Flag of the Canary Islands?
The coat of arms on the Flag of the Canary Islands is significant as it represents the islands’ history and culture. It features a blue field with a gold castle, which is a symbol of the islands’ conquest by Spain. The two dogs on either side of the castle represent the islands’ original inhabitants, the Guanches, and the Latin inscription below the castle translates to “The Canary Islands, Crown of Spain”.
Are there any alternative flags used in the Canary Islands?
Yes, there are alternative flags used in the Canary Islands. One of the alternative flags is the flag of Tenerife, which features the main elements of the Flag of the Canary Islands but with different colors. Another alternative flag is the flag of La Gomera, which features the coat of arms of the island on a blue field.