When it comes to enhancing security measures, Canary Tokens are undoubtedly one of the most intriguing tools available today. These tokens, also known as decoys or honeytokens, are designed to deceive hackers and intruders by attracting their attention away from sensitive information.
So how exactly do Canary Tokens work? These tokens are essentially pieces of information that are strategically placed within a network or system. Once a hacker gains access and interacts with these tokens, they immediately trigger an alert, providing security teams with invaluable real-time information about potential threats.
But why are these tokens called “Canaries”? The name is derived from the canaries that were once used in coal mines to detect lethal gas leaks. In a similar fashion, Canary Tokens give organizations an early warning system, allowing them to identify vulnerabilities and take prompt action before any major compromises occur.
Reviews of Canary Tokens have been overwhelmingly positive, with many organizations praising their effectiveness in detecting and tracking unauthorized access attempts. The versatility of these tokens is also worth noting, as they can be customized to suit specific needs, such as embedding them in sensitive documents, databases, or even as links within an email.
It’s important to remember that Canary Tokens serve as a proactive security measure, rather than a comprehensive solution. They should be seen as an additional layer of defense, complementing existing security mechanisms. By integrating these tokens into their infrastructure, organizations can gain valuable insights and stay one step ahead of potential threats in the ever-evolving landscape of cybersecurity.
What are Canary Tokens?
Canary Tokens are a type of security tool that are used for tracking and detecting unauthorized access or activity. They are often referred to as “canaries” and are designed to act as decoy information or identifiers that can help identify potential threats or breaches in a system.
The concept behind Canary Tokens is similar to a honeypot, where a system or network is intentionally left vulnerable or exposed in order to attract potential attackers. However, unlike a traditional honeypot, canary tokens are specifically designed to be placed within various parts of a system or network to monitor for any suspicious activity or attempts to access sensitive information.
Canary Tokens can be created for a wide range of purposes, such as monitoring specific files or directories, tracking unauthorized login attempts, or even detecting physical breaches in a secured area. They are typically set up with unique identifiers and embedded within different types of files, applications, or even physical objects.
When a canary token is triggered, it generates an alert or notification, allowing the system administrator or security team to promptly investigate and respond to the potential threat. This can help identify vulnerabilities or weaknesses in a system and provide valuable insights into potential attacks or unauthorized access attempts.
Benefits of Canary Tokens
There are several benefits to using Canary Tokens as a security tool:
- Early Warning System: Canary Tokens provide an early warning system by detecting and alerting to potential threats or breaches in a system, giving the security team a chance to respond before any significant damage occurs.
- Easy Deployment: Canary Tokens are relatively easy to deploy and can be set up within various parts of a system or network. They can be customized to fit specific security needs and integrated into existing monitoring or alert systems.
- Cost-Effective: Compared to other security measures, such as intrusion detection systems or constant monitoring, Canary Tokens are often more cost-effective. They provide added layers of security without requiring significant investments in hardware or software.
Canary Tokens are a valuable tool in the field of cybersecurity, providing an additional layer of defense against potential threats or breaches. By strategically placing these decoy information tokens within a system or network, security teams can effectively monitor and detect unauthorized access attempts, helping to protect sensitive information and ensure the overall integrity of a system.
|Act as decoy information or identifiers
|Early warning system
|Help identify potential threats or breaches
|Trigger alerts or notifications
How do Canary Tokens Work?
Canary Tokens are a powerful security tool that can help in tracking and detecting unauthorized access or breaches in your systems. They work based on the concept of a honeypot or a decoy.
When you deploy a Canary Token, it looks like a normal file or document, but it actually acts as a trap for potential attackers. The token is designed to be enticing and attractive to hackers, encouraging them to interact with it. Once the token is accessed or opened, it triggers an alert, notifying you about the breach.
Canary Tokens are typically used in scenarios where you want to protect specific files or sensitive information. By placing a token within a file or on a system, you can track any attempts to access or modify it. The tokens can be customized and disguised to look like normal files, such as PDFs, Word documents, or even images.
There are different types of Canary Tokens available, each with its own purpose and functionality. Some tokens are designed to monitor network traffic, while others are focused on file-level monitoring. Depending on your specific security needs, you can choose the appropriate token for your environment.
Types of Canary Tokens
1. URL Tokens: These tokens are embedded in URLs and can be used to track any attempts to access specific web pages or resources.
2. File Tokens: These tokens are placed within files and can be used to monitor any attempts to open or modify the files.
3. Network Tokens: These tokens act as decoys within a network, tracking any unauthorized access attempts or unusual network traffic.
4. Email Tokens: These tokens are added to emails as invisible pixels or hidden attachments, allowing you to track if and when the emails are opened or accessed.
Overall, Canary Tokens provide an effective way to detect potential security breaches by creating a deception-based detection system. They can act as early warning signs, giving you the opportunity to respond and strengthen your security measures before any significant damage occurs.
Advantages of Using Canary Tokens
Using Canary Tokens has numerous advantages when it comes to enhancing security, tracking activity, and deceiving potential attackers. In this review, we will discuss some key benefits of incorporating Canary Tokens into your security strategy.
By utilizing Canary Tokens, organizations can add an extra layer of security to their systems. These tokens act as decoys, designed to attract and detect unauthorized or malicious activity. By placing the canaries throughout various parts of the network, any interactions with them will immediately alert security teams to potential threats.
Canary Tokens provide a reliable way to track the movement of attackers within a network. When a canary is triggered, it sends an alert indicating the location and time of the breach attempt. This information can aid in identifying the source of the attack and provide valuable insights into an attacker’s tactics and techniques.
Canary Tokens function as deceptive honeypots, designed to lure attackers into interacting with them. By mimicking real assets or documents, these tokens can trick attackers into exposing their presence and intentions. The canaries offer a valuable means of gathering intelligence and understanding the methods used by potential adversaries.
In conclusion, incorporating Canary Tokens into your security infrastructure offers several advantages. They enhance security, provide effective tracking capabilities, and act as decoys to gather valuable information about potential attackers. By utilizing these tokens, organizations can strengthen their defenses and stay one step ahead in the ongoing battle against cybersecurity threats.
Types of Canary Tokens
Canary tokens are an essential tool for security professionals who want to track and detect unauthorized access or data breaches. These decoy tokens can be strategically placed throughout a network or system to act as a trap and provide early warning of any potential security issues.
There are various types of canary tokens available, each serving a specific purpose in tracking and gathering information. The following are some common types of canary tokens:
1. URL Canary Tokens
A URL canary token is a web link that is designed to be placed in areas of a website or application that are likely to be targeted by attackers. When the token is accessed or clicked, it sends an alert to the security team, providing valuable information about the attacker and their methods.
2. File Canary Tokens
File canary tokens are files that are intentionally placed in sensitive areas of a network or system. These files can have unique identifiers which, when accessed or copied, trigger an alert. This allows security professionals to track and monitor who is accessing sensitive files and detect any unauthorized activity.
3. Document Canary Tokens
Document canary tokens are similar to file canary tokens but are specifically designed to be embedded within documents, such as PDFs or Word files. These tokens can be used to track the distribution of sensitive information and identify any unauthorized access to the documents.
By utilizing different types of canary tokens, security teams can gather valuable information about potential threats and take appropriate action to protect their systems and networks. Regularly reviewing the data collected from these tokens can help identify vulnerabilities and improve overall security measures.
How to Deploy Canary Tokens?
Deploying Canary Tokens is a straightforward process that allows you to easily track unauthorized access and monitor potential security breaches. These tokens act as decoys, enticing attackers into revealing their presence, and providing valuable information about their techniques and intentions.
Here are the steps to deploy Canary Tokens:
Step 1: Choose the Appropriate Canary Tokens
Start by selecting the appropriate Canary Tokens based on your needs and the areas you wish to monitor. Canary Tokens come in various forms, such as files, URLs, registry keys, and more. Choose the type of token that best suits your requirements.
Step 2: Generate the Canary Tokens
Once you have chosen the type of Canary Tokens, you need to generate them. There are several tools available online that can help you generate these tokens easily. These tools allow you to customize the tokens and set specific properties to match your desired scenarios.
Step 3: Distribute the Canary Tokens
After generating the Canary Tokens, you need to distribute them strategically across your network or systems. Place them in locations that seem enticing to potential attackers, such as shared folders, privileged directories, or even within decoy documents. This increases the chances of an attacker encountering the token and triggering an alert.
It is important to ensure that the Canary Tokens are hidden among legitimate files and data to make them more convincing. This will help to create a realistic environment and increase the likelihood of an attacker interacting with the token.
Step 4: Monitor and Respond
Once the Canary Tokens are deployed, it is crucial to monitor them regularly. Set up alerts or notifications that will inform you when a token is triggered. This allows you to take immediate action and investigate the attempted unauthorized access.
When an attacker interacts with a Canary Token, it provides valuable information about their techniques and intentions. You can use this information to strengthen your security measures and prevent future attacks.
Remember that Canary Tokens act as a type of honeypot, so it is essential to respond to any alerts or triggers appropriately. Investigate each instance and take the necessary steps to mitigate any potential risks.
By deploying Canary Tokens effectively, you can enhance your overall security posture and gain valuable insights into potential threats and vulnerabilities.
Detecting and Responding to Canary Token Triggers
In the world of security, canary tokens have become a popular tool for tracking and detecting unauthorized activities. These decoy tokens act as a trap, notifying security teams when someone interacts with them, indicating a potential security breach. In this review, we will discuss the importance of detecting and responding to canary token triggers.
The Purpose of Canary Tokens
Canary tokens serve as an early warning system, providing valuable insights into potential security threats. By deploying canaries across various endpoints or network assets, organizations can gain visibility into the actions of malicious actors within their environment. These tokens act as sacrificial lambs, enticing attackers to engage with them, thus exposing their presence and motivations.
Identifying Trigger Events
When canary tokens are triggered, security teams need to be alerted immediately to take appropriate action. This can be achieved through various means, such as email notifications or integrations with security incident and event management (SIEM) systems. By monitoring canary token triggers, organizations can swiftly identify the presence of an intruder or an attempted breach.
It’s essential to establish a baseline for normal activity to differentiate legitimate actions from malicious intent. By analyzing the triggers, security teams can fine-tune their response strategies and identify patterns or trends that may indicate larger threats or vulnerabilities within the organization’s security posture.
In addition, the analysis of trigger events can help organizations understand the effectiveness of their security controls and whether there are any shortcomings that need to be addressed. By identifying successful trigger events, organizations can learn from these incidents and enhance their overall security defenses.
Ultimately, detecting and responding to canary token triggers empowers organizations to proactively protect their systems and data, minimizing the impact of potential security incidents and breaches. By leveraging canary tokens as part of a comprehensive security strategy, organizations can stay one step ahead of threat actors and strengthen their overall security posture.
Use Cases for Canary Tokens
Canary tokens are an innovative way to enhance the security of your systems and protect against potential threats. They are essentially decoy files or objects that can be placed in various locations to act as a honeypot, luring potential attackers into revealing their presence or intentions.
1. Tracking Internal Access
One use case for canary tokens is to track internal access within your organization. By placing tokens throughout your network or sensitive files, you can monitor who is accessing specific resources. This can help you identify unauthorized users or potential insider threats.
2. Detecting External Attacks
Canary tokens can also be used to detect external attacks. By placing tokens on your website or in your email signatures, you can track if and when hackers are attempting to gain access. This can provide an early warning system and allow you to take necessary actions to protect your systems.
One of the key advantages of canary tokens is that they are easy to set up and require minimal resources. They can be created in various formats, such as documents, URLs, or even credentials, making them versatile and easy to deploy.
|How It Works
|Tracking Internal Access
|Place tokens throughout the network or sensitive files to monitor access.
|Identify unauthorized users or potential insider threats.
|Detecting External Attacks
|Place tokens on your website or in email signatures to track access attempts.
|Provide an early warning system and protect your systems.
Overall, canary tokens are a powerful tool in the realm of security and can provide valuable insights into potential threats. By utilizing these tokens, you can enhance your defense mechanisms and stay one step ahead of attackers.
Canary Tokens vs. Honeypots
In the world of cybersecurity, there are various techniques and tools used to track and detect potential threats. Two popular options are Canary Tokens and Honeypots. Both serve as decoys to attract and divert malicious actors, but there are some key differences between them.
Canary Tokens are a type of tracking mechanism that allows security professionals to monitor and identify any unauthorized access to sensitive information. These tokens can be embedded within files, documents, or even emails, and are designed to look like regular files or documents to unsuspecting users.
How do Canary Tokens work?
When a user interacts with a Canary Token, it sends an alert to the security team, indicating potential compromise. The information collected from the Canary Tokens can provide valuable insights regarding the methods and techniques used by attackers. Additionally, they can help identify vulnerabilities or weaknesses in the security infrastructure.
Honeypots, on the other hand, are designed to mimic real servers or systems. These decoy systems are intentionally created to attract attackers and divert their attention from the actual production environment. The main goal of honeypots is to gather information about the attackers, their methods, and motives.
How do Honeypots work?
When attackers interact with a honeypot, their actions and behaviors are monitored, recorded, and analyzed. This information can then be used to enhance the overall security posture of the organization and prevent future attacks.
While both Canary Tokens and Honeypots serve as decoys and aid in tracking potential threats, there are some notable differences. Canary Tokens focus on tracking unauthorized access to specific files or documents, whereas Honeypots mimic entire systems or servers.
Another difference is in their purpose. Canary Tokens primarily provide a means of early warning and detection, allowing security teams to respond promptly to potential threats. On the other hand, Honeypots are more focused on gathering intelligence and learning about attackers’ tactics, techniques, and procedures.
In conclusion, both Canary Tokens and Honeypots play an important role in enhancing security measures. Canary Tokens provide early detection of unauthorized access, while Honeypots gather valuable intelligence. Organizations can benefit from using both techniques in their overall security strategy to better understand potential threats and protect their valuable information.
Common Misconceptions about Canary Tokens
When it comes to reviewing the security of a system, Canary Tokens are often misunderstood. Here are some common misconceptions:
1. Decoy vs. Canary
One misconception is that Canary Tokens and decoys are the same thing. While both serve the purpose of luring in attackers and providing early warning signs, there is a difference. Decoys are usually designed to look like real systems, while Canary Tokens are specific pieces of information that are intentionally left vulnerable.
2. Canary Tokens = Honeypots
Another misconception is that Canary Tokens are the same as honeypots. While both involve setting up traps for attackers, honeypots are usually entire systems or networks that are designed to be compromised. On the other hand, Canary Tokens are small pieces of information that are strategically placed to detect unauthorized access or activity.
3. Tracking Unauthorized Access
Some people believe that Canary Tokens are only useful for tracking unauthorized access. While this is one of their main purposes, Canary Tokens can also help with tracking user behavior, identifying vulnerabilities, and evaluating the effectiveness of security controls. They provide valuable information that can be used for security reviews and improvements.
4. Lack of Real-Time Alerts
There is a misconception that Canary Tokens can only provide alerts after the fact. While it’s true that Canary Tokens are passive and don’t actively prevent attacks, they can still provide real-time alerts when triggered. These alerts can help security teams respond quickly to potential threats and take appropriate actions to protect the system.
In conclusion, Canary Tokens are not just decoys or honeypots, but valuable tools for tracking and evaluating security. By dispelling these common misconceptions, organizations can better understand the benefits of using Canary Tokens in their security strategies.
Canary Tokens for Network Security
In the world of cybersecurity, tracking and collecting information about potential threats is crucial for maintaining the security of a network. Canary Tokens are a powerful tool that can be used to enhance network security by providing an additional layer of deception and defense against attackers.
Canary Tokens are essentially pieces of information that are designed to act as decoys or honeypots, drawing the attention of intruders and alerting administrators to potential breaches in the network. These tokens can be planted strategically throughout a network, and when accessed or triggered, they will generate an alert.
By placing Canary Tokens in various locations within a network, administrators can gain valuable insight into the tactics and techniques used by attackers. These tokens can be disguised as sensitive files, credentials, or even fake login screens, enticing attackers to interact with them.
When an attacker opens a Canary Token or triggers it in any way, an alert is generated, which can include information about the attacker’s IP address, location, and actions. This information can then be used to investigate the intrusion and take appropriate actions to strengthen the network’s security.
Canary Tokens are not limited to specific types of attacks. They can be used to detect unauthorized access attempts, phishing attacks, or even attempts to exfiltrate data from the network. By deploying Canary Tokens, organizations can prevent attacks before they even happen, or at the very least, gain valuable time to respond and mitigate the potential damage.
In addition to their practical benefits, Canary Tokens are also easy to deploy and manage. Various platforms offer user-friendly interfaces that allow administrators to create and distribute tokens to different parts of the network. These platforms also provide detailed logs and reports, enabling administrators to review and analyze the information collected from the Canary Tokens.
In conclusion, Canary Tokens are a valuable tool for network security. By acting as decoys or honeypots, they can provide an early warning system and valuable information about potential threats. Their ease of use and ability to detect various types of attacks make them an essential part of any organization’s cybersecurity strategy.
Canary Tokens for Email Security
Canary Tokens are a powerful tool for enhancing email security. These tokens act as decoys or canaries to detect unauthorized access to sensitive information. By placing these tokens strategically in an email system, organizations can identify and track malicious activities.
By deploying canary tokens as a part of an organization’s email security strategy, they can set up honeypots or traps for potential attackers. These tokens can include fake or sensitive information that triggers an alert when accessed or clicked upon. This alert can help organizations quickly detect and respond to potential security breaches.
Canary tokens can be easily integrated into an email system, and they provide organizations with valuable insights into the effectiveness of their email security measures. By monitoring the activities surrounding these tokens, organizations can identify vulnerabilities and take appropriate actions to strengthen their security protocols.
Reviews of Canary Tokens for email security have been positive, with many users citing their effectiveness in detecting and deterring potential threats. The ability to customize these tokens to fit specific security needs is particularly praised, as it allows organizations to create unique decoys that closely mimic their sensitive data.
- Deploying canary tokens can help organizations identify unauthorized access attempts.
- Canary tokens act as decoys or canaries in an email system.
- They can include fake or sensitive information to trigger alerts.
- Canary tokens provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of email security measures.
- Positive reviews highlight the ability to customize tokens to fit specific security needs.
Canary Tokens for Web Security
Canary Tokens are a powerful tool for enhancing web security. Acting as a type of honeypot, these tokens are strategically placed across a network to track and detect any unauthorized access or suspicious activity.
By embedding these tokens within various parts of a website, such as hidden links or even in HTML comments, they serve as decoys that attackers may unknowingly activate. Once triggered, the tokens discreetly send out notifications, alerting security teams about the breach. This enables them to proactively respond and safeguard sensitive information.
As part of a comprehensive security strategy, Canary Tokens provide an additional layer of defense. By using these tokens, organizations can gain valuable insights into the various techniques cybercriminals employ to gain access to their systems and steal confidential data.
Security reviews can then be conducted based on the information gathered from the tokens. Through these reviews, organizations can identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses in their web security infrastructure, and take appropriate measures to address them.
Canary Tokens have proven to be a highly effective tool in the ever-evolving landscape of cybersecurity. Their innovative approach allows organizations to proactively detect and respond to threats, while also gaining valuable insights for ongoing improvement.
When it comes to web security, Canary Tokens are a must-have for any organization looking to enhance their defenses against potential cyber attacks. By deploying these tokens strategically, organizations can stay one step ahead of attackers and protect their valuable data.
Canary Tokens for Physical Security
When conducting a review of physical security measures, it is essential to consider all available options for tracking and monitoring potential breaches. One innovative tool that can greatly enhance the overall security strategy is the use of Canary Tokens.
Canary Tokens are a type of information decoy that can be deployed throughout an organization’s physical premises. These tokens are designed to attract attention and act as a honeypot for attackers. By intentionally placing these tokens in strategic locations, organizations can gain valuable insight into the effectiveness of their security measures.
How Canary Tokens Work
Canary Tokens are designed to mimic legitimate items or objects within an organization’s physical environment. They can take the form of USB drives, key fobs, or even fake login credentials. The key purpose of these tokens is to entice potential attackers to interact with them.
Once a Canary Token is triggered, it will generate an alert, providing crucial information about the attacker’s activities. This information can include details such as the time of the trigger, the location of the token, and even the IP address of the attacker. This can help security teams track and investigate potential threats effectively.
Benefits of Using Canary Tokens
There are several significant benefits to implementing Canary Tokens for physical security purposes:
|Canary Tokens provide an additional layer of detection, allowing organizations to identify potential breaches earlier.
|When a Canary Token is triggered, security teams receive immediate alerts, enabling them to respond swiftly and minimize the impact of any security incidents.
|Insider Threat Identification
|Canary Tokens can help organizations identify and address insider threats by monitoring how employees interact with potential decoys.
|Testing Security Measures
|By deploying Canary Tokens, organizations can evaluate the effectiveness of their existing security measures and make necessary improvements.
In conclusion, Canary Tokens offer an effective and innovative approach to enhancing physical security strategies. By deploying these decoy tokens, organizations can track and monitor potential breaches, gain valuable insights, and strengthen their overall security posture.
Canary Tokens for Insider Threat Detection
Canary Tokens are a powerful tool for tracking and detecting insider threats within an organization’s network. These security measures act as a honeypot or a decoy that can bait unauthorized access attempts or malicious activities.
Insider threats are one of the biggest concerns for organizations as they involve employees or individuals with valid access to sensitive information. Detecting and preventing insider threats is crucial to maintaining the security of critical business assets.
Canary Tokens are a form of digital decoy designed to look like normal files, links, or pieces of information. They are strategically placed throughout the network and contain unique triggers that alarm when accessed or interacted with. These triggers can include actions like opening a document, clicking a link, or even attempting to access a specific folder.
When a Canary Token is triggered, an alert is sent to the security team, notifying them of the suspicious activity. This allows them to investigate and mitigate any potential threats before they result in a data breach or compromised security.
Reviews of Canary Tokens have been overwhelmingly positive, with many organizations praising their effectiveness in detecting and deterring insider threats. The ability to create multiple types of tokens and deploy them in various locations within the network provides a comprehensive monitoring solution.
Furthermore, Canary Tokens offer an additional layer of security by providing a notification when an attacker has gained unauthorized access to a particular file or folder. This allows organizations to quickly respond and prevent any further unauthorized actions or data exfiltration.
In conclusion, Canary Tokens play a vital role in identifying and mitigating the risks posed by insider threats. They act as an early warning system, alerting organizations to potential security breaches and allowing them to take proactive measures to protect their sensitive information and assets.
What are Canary Tokens?
Canary Tokens are a type of digital trap that are designed to alert users when someone is attempting to access or interact with sensitive information. They can be used to protect against unauthorized access, detect malicious activity, and gather information about potential attackers.
How do Canary Tokens work?
Canary Tokens work by creating fake files, documents, or other types of digital assets that are designed to look like real data. When someone interacts with a Canary Token, such as opening a file or clicking on a link, an alert is triggered and the owner of the token is notified. This allows the owner to take action and investigate the potential threat.
Where can Canary Tokens be used?
Canary Tokens can be used in a variety of environments, both on personal devices and within larger organizational networks. They can be placed on individual computers, shared drives, servers, or even embedded within emails or websites. By strategically placing Canary Tokens, users can gain insight into who is trying to access their sensitive information and take appropriate action.
What are the benefits of using Canary Tokens?
There are several benefits to using Canary Tokens. Firstly, they provide an early warning system, allowing users to detect and respond to potential threats before they can cause significant damage. Secondly, Canary Tokens can help gather valuable information about attackers and their methods, which can be used to strengthen security measures. Lastly, Canary Tokens are relatively easy to deploy and manage, making them a cost-effective security solution.
Are there any limitations or drawbacks to using Canary Tokens?
While Canary Tokens can be a valuable tool in a security arsenal, they do have some limitations. One limitation is that they rely on user interaction to trigger the alert, so they may not be effective against certain types of automated attacks. Additionally, if an attacker is aware of the presence of Canary Tokens, they may be able to avoid triggering them and carry out their malicious activities undetected. However, when used in conjunction with other security measures, Canary Tokens can still provide valuable insights and protection.
What is Canary Tokens?
Canary Tokens is a free open-source tool that allows users to create and deploy computer-safety “canaries” to detect intrusions and unauthorized access.
How does Canary Tokens work?
Canary Tokens works by creating unique triggers that, when accessed or interacted with, send an alert to the user indicating a potential security breach or unauthorized access. These triggers can be in the form of files, URLs, or other types of data.
What are some use cases for Canary Tokens?
Canary Tokens can be used in various ways, such as detecting unauthorized access to sensitive files or systems, monitoring for phishing attacks, tracking stolen devices, or testing the effectiveness of security measures.
Is Canary Tokens suitable for personal use?
Yes, Canary Tokens can be used for personal use as well. It provides an extra layer of security and peace of mind by alerting you to any suspicious activity or potential security breaches on your personal devices or accounts.