The Largest Canary – Unveiling The Grandest Bird of all

When it comes to canaries, we often think of small, delicate birds known for their beautiful singing. However, there is one canary that stands out from the rest – the largest canary in the world.

This extraordinary bird is not your typical canary. It is much bigger in size, with a body that can reach up to twice the size of a regular canary. Its vibrant plumage is a sight to behold, with bright yellow feathers that can be seen from miles away.

Not only is the largest canary in the world visually striking, but it also possesses a unique and powerful voice. Its song is deep and resonant, filling the air with a mesmerizing melody that can captivate anyone who hears it.

Despite its size, the largest canary in the world maintains the graceful and agile movements characteristic of canaries. It is a sight to see as it gracefully flies through the air, showcasing its impressive wingspan.

The World’s Biggest Canary – A Fascinating Bird Species

Canaries are beloved birds known for their beautiful singing and vibrant colors. Did you know that there is a canary species that stands out from the rest? The world’s biggest canary, scientifically known as Serinus canaria, is a fascinating bird that captivates bird enthusiasts from all around the globe.

Physical Characteristics

The world’s biggest canary is larger than its smaller counterparts, measuring up to 6 inches in length. It has a robust body with a broad chest and a powerful beak. Its plumage is predominantly yellow, with some individuals featuring small patches of green, brown, or white feathers. The striking colors of this canary make it a true spectacle to behold.

In addition to its size, what sets the world’s biggest canary apart is its impressive singing ability. Its melodious and unique songs can fill a room with enchanting tunes that can uplift anyone’s mood.

Habitat and Distribution

The world’s biggest canary is predominantly found in the Canary Islands, which is located off the northwest coast of Africa. These islands provide the perfect habitat for these birds, with a combination of lush vegetation, open grasslands, and rocky cliffs.

Although the world’s biggest canary is primarily found in the Canary Islands, it has also been introduced to various parts of the world as a pet bird. Its captivating appearance and beautiful song have made it a popular choice among bird enthusiasts everywhere.

Characteristic Details
Scientific Name Serinus canaria
Size Up to 6 inches
Habitat Canary Islands, introduced to various parts of the world
Main Color Yellow, with patches of green, brown, or white

Overall, the world’s biggest canary is a remarkable bird species that combines size, beauty, and a mesmerizing song. Whether found in its native Canary Islands or kept as a pet in other parts of the world, this canary continues to captivate all who encounter it.

The Size and Appearance of the Giant Canary

The giant canary is known for its impressive size and striking appearance. As the largest member of the canary family, these birds can grow to be up to 8 inches long. Their size is truly remarkable, especially when compared to their smaller canary relatives.

Aside from their size, giant canaries have unique physical characteristics that set them apart. They have a prominent beak that is slightly curved, which allows them to easily crack open seeds. Their feathers are vibrant and colorful, typically displaying shades of yellow, orange, and green.

The male giant canary is distinguishable by its bright plumage and distinctive song.

The males have a vibrant yellow body with streaks of green on their wings and tail. Their feathers are thick and fluffy, adding to their overall impressive size. In addition to their flashy appearance, male giant canaries have a beautiful melodic song. Their songs are often complex and can be heard from a great distance.

The female giant canary, although less striking in appearance, is equally impressive.

Female giant canaries have a more subdued coloration, with shades of green and brown blending together. Their feathers are sleek and smooth, which allows them to easily maneuver through the trees. Although they may not have the same brilliant colors as the males, female giant canaries possess their own unique beauty.

Overall, the size and appearance of the giant canary make it a truly remarkable bird. Its vibrant plumage and melodic song make it a sought-after pet and a popular attraction in aviaries worldwide.

Unique Behaviors and Habits of the Giant Canary

The giant canary, being the largest canary in the world, stands out not only for its size but also for its unique behaviors and habits. Let’s explore some of the fascinating characteristics that make this bird so special:

  • Distinctive Song: The giant canary possesses a melodious and powerful voice that carries over long distances. Its song is more complex and varied compared to other canary species, often consisting of trills, whistles, and rapid notes.
  • Migratory Patterns: Unlike its smaller counterparts, the giant canary is a migratory bird, embarking on long journeys in search of suitable breeding grounds and food sources. It follows specific routes and relies on its exceptional navigation abilities to navigate vast distances.
  • Nest Building: The giant canary is known for its meticulous nest-building skills. It constructs elaborate nests made of twigs, feathers, and grass, often adding intricate decorations to attract potential mates.
  • Social Behavior: Despite its large size, the giant canary has a highly sociable nature. It forms flocks with other individuals and engages in various social interactions, such as grooming and cooperative feeding.
  • Distinctive Feeding Habits: The giant canary has unique feeding habits, primarily relying on a diverse diet consisting of seeds, fruits, insects, and nectar. Its long, slender beak allows it to access various food sources that are inaccessible to other birds.
  • Courtship Displays: During the breeding season, male giant canaries perform elaborate courtship displays to attract females. These displays often include singing, wing flapping, and intricate flight patterns, showcasing the male’s fitness and reproductive abilities.
  • Parental Care: The giant canary exhibits remarkable parental care. Both parents participate in incubating the eggs and feeding the nestlings until they fledge. They also teach their young how to forage and survive in their environment.

These unique behaviors and habits of the giant canary make it a captivating species to study and admire. Its size, coupled with its distinctive traits, truly sets it apart from other canary species.

Important Factors for Breeding and Raising Giant Canaries

Breeding and raising giant canaries requires careful consideration of various factors to ensure the health and well-being of these magnificent birds. Below are some important factors to keep in mind:

1. Genetics

Genetics play a crucial role in breeding giant canaries. Selecting healthy breeding pairs with desirable traits, such as large size, vibrant colors, and robust physical attributes, is essential. It is also important to consider the genetic history of the canaries to avoid any potential health issues or genetic disorders.

2. Nutrition

A balanced and nutritious diet is vital for the proper growth and development of giant canaries. Providing a variety of high-quality seeds, fresh fruits, vegetables, and supplements will ensure they receive all the necessary vitamins, minerals, and proteins. Additionally, maintaining a clean and fresh water source is essential for their overall health.

3. Proper Housing

Giant canaries require spacious and well-ventilated cages or aviaries to thrive. The size of the enclosure should be appropriate to accommodate their large size. It is essential to provide perches, nesting boxes, and areas for exercise to promote their physical and mental well-being. Regular cleaning and maintenance of the housing environment are also crucial to prevent the spread of diseases.

4. Environmental Conditions

The environmental conditions in which giant canaries are bred and raised significantly impact their overall health and breeding success. Maintaining stable temperature and humidity levels, providing adequate natural light or appropriate lighting systems, and minimizing exposure to drafts or extreme weather conditions are vital factors to consider.

Overall, breeding and raising giant canaries require careful attention to their genetics, nutrition, housing, and environmental conditions. By ensuring these important factors are met, you can enjoy the beauty and magnificence of these remarkable birds.

Top 5 Giant Canary Varieties You Need to Know

Giant canaries are a fascinating breed of birds that captivate bird enthusiasts with their impressive size and striking appearance. If you’re a fan of these magnificent creatures, here are the top 5 giant canary varieties that you need to know:

1. Belgian Giant Canary

The Belgian Giant canary is one of the biggest canary varieties, reaching an impressive size of about 8.5-9 inches in length. Known for their robust build and muscular appearance, these canaries make a striking addition to any aviary. They come in a variety of colors, including yellow, white, and orange.

2. German Harzer Roller

The German Harzer Roller is another giant canary variety that is highly sought after by bird enthusiasts. These canaries are known for their distinctive song and impressive size, measuring around 7-8 inches in length. With their beautiful plumage and melodious singing, they make a delightful addition to any bird lover’s collection.

3. Spanish Timbrado

The Spanish Timbrado is a popular giant canary variety known for its exceptional singing talent and larger size. These canaries typically measure around 6.5-7 inches in length and are renowned for their beautiful lyrical songs. With their vibrant yellow plumage and energetic demeanor, they are a sight to behold.

4. Russian Singer Canary

The Russian Singer Canary is a well-known giant canary variety hailing from Russia. These canaries are prized for their impressive size, reaching up to 8-8.5 inches in length. They are known for their robust build and powerful voices, making them a favorite among canary enthusiasts who appreciate their unique singing abilities.

5. Border Fancy Canary

The Border Fancy canary is a giant canary variety that originated in the border region of England and Scotland. These canaries are renowned for their striking appearance and larger size, measuring around 7-7.5 inches in length. With their vibrant plumage, they make a stunning addition to any bird lover’s collection.

When it comes to giant canaries, these top 5 varieties are the biggest and most remarkable. Whether you’re a seasoned canary enthusiast or just starting out, adding one of these magnificent birds to your collection is sure to bring joy and beauty to your aviary.

How to Care for a Giant Canary: Diet and Nutrition Tips

A giant canary requires a balanced and nutritious diet to maintain its health and well-being. Here are some important diet and nutrition tips to keep in mind when caring for a giant canary:

  • Seeds: The primary food for a giant canary is a high-quality seed mix. Make sure to choose a mix that is specifically formulated for canaries to ensure they receive the necessary nutrients.
  • Fruits and Vegetables: In addition to seeds, a giant canary’s diet should also include fresh fruits and vegetables. Some good options include apples, spinach, carrots, and broccoli. These provide vitamins and minerals that are essential for their overall health.
  • Protein: Protein is important for a canary’s growth and development. Include protein-rich foods in their diet such as cooked eggs, chicken, or mealworms. These can be given as treats or mixed with their regular food.
  • Water: Fresh and clean water should always be available for your giant canary. Change the water daily to prevent contamination and ensure they stay hydrated.
  • Avoid Harmful Foods: Some foods can be toxic or harmful to canaries. Avoid feeding them avocado, chocolate, caffeine, and alcohol, as these can be dangerous and even fatal to them.

Remember to monitor your giant canary’s diet and make adjustments as needed. Providing them with a varied and nutritious diet will help promote their overall health and happiness.

Giant Canary Health Concerns and Common Diseases

As the biggest canary in the world, the Giant Canary is prone to certain health concerns and common diseases that owners should be aware of.

1. Obesity

Due to their size, Giant Canaries are more susceptible to obesity. Owners should monitor their bird’s diet and provide regular exercise to prevent weight gain.

2. Respiratory Issues

Giant Canaries may be prone to respiratory issues such as breathing difficulties or wheezing. This can be caused by poor ventilation or exposure to irritants in the environment. It is important to keep the bird’s living space clean and free of potential respiratory hazards.

3. Heart Disease

Heart disease is another common concern for Giant Canaries. Owners should ensure that their bird receives a balanced diet and regular veterinary check-ups to monitor for any cardiac issues.

4. Feather Plucking

Some Giant Canaries may develop feather plucking habits, which can be a sign of stress or boredom. Providing ample stimulation, socialization, and a comfortable living environment can help prevent this behavior.

By understanding and addressing these health concerns and common diseases, owners can ensure the well-being and longevity of their Giant Canary.

Tips for Training and Socializing Your Giant Canary

Training and socializing a giant canary can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience for both you and your feathered friend. Here are some tips to help you with the process:

  • Start training at a young age: It’s best to start training and socializing your giant canary when they are still young. This will help them get used to your presence and will make the training process much easier.
  • Use positive reinforcement: Reward your giant canary with treats and praise when they exhibit desired behaviors. This will motivate them to continue behaving in the desired way.
  • Be patient: Training takes time and your giant canary might not learn new behaviors right away. Stay patient and consistent with your training efforts, and eventually, they will catch on.
  • Introduce them to different environments: Socializing your giant canary involves exposing them to different environments and situations. Take them outside, introduce them to new people and animals, and let them explore different areas of your home.
  • Provide plenty of mental stimulation: Giant canaries are intelligent birds and need mental stimulation to stay happy and healthy. Offer them toys, puzzles, and interactive activities to keep their minds engaged.
  • Be a confident and assertive leader: Establish yourself as the leader of the flock and be confident and assertive in your interactions with your giant canary. This will help them feel secure and will make training easier.
  • Ensure regular social interaction: Spend quality time with your giant canary every day. This can include playing, talking, singing, or simply sitting quietly together. Regular social interaction will enhance the bond between you and your bird.
  • Seek professional help if needed: If you’re having difficulties with training or socializing your giant canary, don’t hesitate to seek professional help from an avian behavior specialist or a bird trainer. They can provide expert guidance and advice tailored to your specific situation.

Remember, training and socializing your giant canary is an ongoing process. The more time and effort you invest in it, the better the bond you will develop and the happier your bird will be.

Legal Regulations and Restrictions for Owning Giant Canaries

As the biggest canaries in the world, giant canaries are unique and fascinating creatures. However, owning one comes with legal regulations and restrictions that potential owners need to be aware of.

Licensing Requirements

In many countries, owning a giant canary requires a special license. This is because their size and specific needs require owners to have a certain level of experience and knowledge. Before getting a giant canary, it is important to research the licensing requirements in your area and ensure that you meet all the necessary criteria.

Housing and Care Regulations

Due to their size, giant canaries need ample space and specialized housing. There may be specific regulations in place for the minimum size of cages or aviaries for these birds. Additionally, owners are often required to provide a certain standard of care, including appropriate nutrition, veterinary care, and environmental enrichment.

Some countries also have regulations regarding the breeding or sale of giant canaries. These regulations may include restrictions on who can breed or sell these birds, as well as requirements for documentation and licenses.

It is important for potential owners to familiarize themselves with these legal regulations and restrictions before deciding to bring a giant canary into their home. Failure to comply with these regulations can result in fines, confiscation of the bird, or other legal consequences.

Where to Buy a Giant Canary: Choosing a Reputable Breeder

If you are interested in purchasing the biggest canary in the world, it is important to find a reputable breeder. A reputable breeder will ensure that you are getting a healthy and genetically sound bird. Here are some tips to help you find the right breeder:

1. Do your research: Start by researching different breeders in your area or online. Look for breeders who have a good reputation and positive reviews from other customers.

2. Visit the breeder: Once you have identified potential breeders, schedule a visit to their facility. This will allow you to see the conditions in which the birds are kept and assess the overall cleanliness and health of the environment.

3. Ask questions: During your visit, don’t hesitate to ask the breeder questions about their breeding practices, the lineage of their birds, and any health guarantees they may offer. A reputable breeder will be happy to answer your questions and provide you with the information you need.

4. Health testing: Inquire about the health testing done on the birds. A reputable breeder will conduct regular health checks to ensure that their birds are free from any genetic or health issues.

5. References: Ask the breeder for references from previous customers. Contact these references to inquire about their experience with the breeder and the health and temperament of the birds they purchased.

6. Contracts and guarantees: A reputable breeder will provide you with a contract that outlines the terms of sale and any guarantees they offer regarding the health and quality of the bird. Make sure to review the contract carefully before making a purchase.

Remember, buying a giant canary is a long-term commitment, so it’s important to choose a reputable breeder who prioritizes the health and well-being of their birds.

Giant Canary Competitions and Shows: A Spectacular Event

The Giant Canary Competitions and Shows are one of the biggest events in the canary world. Every year, breeders and enthusiasts from all corners of the globe gather to showcase their magnificent giant canaries and compete for various awards and prizes.

A Showcase of Size and Beauty

These competitions and shows are a celebration of the size and beauty of giant canaries. The birds on display are true marvels, with their impressive size and vibrant colors. Visitors are treated to a spectacular sight as they witness these majestic creatures in all their glory.

Various Categories and Awards

There are various categories in which the giant canaries are judged, including size, color, and overall appearance. Expert judges carefully evaluate each bird, taking into account their physical attributes and adherence to breed standards. Prizes are awarded to the winners in each category, with the overall champion being crowned as the “Giant Canary of the Year.”

These competitions and shows not only allow breeders to showcase their birds but also provide an opportunity for enthusiasts to learn more about giant canaries and connect with others who share the same passion. It is a chance for people to exchange knowledge, discuss breeding techniques, and appreciate the beauty of giant canaries.

Home Environment Setup for a Giant Canary

Creating a comfortable and suitable home environment is essential when it comes to caring for the world’s biggest canary. These magnificent creatures require specific conditions to thrive and live a healthy life.

1. Spacious Living Area

A giant canary needs plenty of space to spread its wings and move around comfortably. Invest in a large cage or aviary that provides ample room for the bird to fly and exercise. Ensure that the cage has sturdy perches and branches for the canary to perch and rest.

2. Proper Lighting

Lighting plays a crucial role in the well-being of a giant canary. Provide natural sunlight by placing the cage near a window or use full-spectrum bulbs that mimic the sun’s rays. This will positively impact the bird’s mood, behavior, and overall health.

Additionally, ensure that the lighting is consistent and follows a natural day-night cycle. This means providing darkness and silence during the night hours to allow the canary to rest peacefully.

Strong sources of light, such as bright lamps or direct sunlight, should be avoided as they can be overwhelming for your giant canary and may cause stress.

3. Adequate Temperature and Humidity

Maintaining the right temperature and humidity levels is crucial for the well-being of a giant canary. These birds thrive in a temperature range of 65-75°F (18-24°C).

Keep the canary’s environment free from extreme fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Avoid placing the cage near drafts or directly above radiators or air conditioning vents.

Regularly monitor the humidity levels and ensure they range between 40-60%. You can achieve this by using a humidifier or misting the bird’s feathers with water occasionally.

Creating a comfortable and suitable home environment for your giant canary is essential for its well-being. By providing a spacious living area, proper lighting, and maintaining the right temperature and humidity, you can ensure that your canary lives a happy and healthy life.

Interacting with Your Giant Canary: Bonding and Playtime

When it comes to interacting with your giant canary, bonding and playtime are essential. These activities not only help strengthen the bond between you and your canary, but also provide mental stimulation and exercise for your feathered friend.

One of the biggest advantages of having a giant canary as a pet is their friendly and sociable nature. They are known for their playful and curious behavior, and it is important to engage them in activities that cater to their needs.

One way to bond with your giant canary is through gentle handling and petting. Start by slowly and gently approaching your canary, allowing them to become familiar with your presence. Use a calm and soothing voice to communicate with them, and offer them treats as a form of positive reinforcement.

Bonding Tips:
1. Spend time near your canary’s cage, talking to them and offering treats.
2. Gradually introduce your hand into the cage, allowing your canary to approach it at their own pace.
3. Once your canary is comfortable with your presence, try gently petting them on their feathers.

Aside from bonding, playtime is also crucial for your giant canary’s well-being. These birds are active and energetic, and providing them with toys and activities will help keep them mentally stimulated and prevent boredom.

Investing in a variety of toys that cater to your canary’s size is important. Look for toys that are safe and durable, such as interactive puzzle toys, swings, and bells. These toys provide entertainment and promote physical exercise for your giant canary.

Additionally, consider setting up a play area outside your canary’s cage. This can be a designated space where your canary can explore and fly, under supervision. Ensure the area is safe and bird-proof, free from any potential hazards.

During playtime, interact with your giant canary by introducing new toys and engaging in interactive games. This can include hiding treats in toys for your canary to discover, or teaching them simple tricks and commands. Positive reinforcement, such as praise and treats, will encourage your canary’s participation and make playtime more enjoyable for both of you.

Remember, bonding and playtime are essential for the overall well-being and happiness of your giant canary. Take the time to interact with your feathered friend, and you will both enjoy a strong and fulfilling relationship.

The History and Origins of the Giant Canary Breeds

The Canary Islands, located off the northwest coast of Africa, are known for their diverse and unique bird species. Among these, the canary birds have gained significant popularity worldwide. While the canary breeds generally remain small in size, there are exceptions, and some canaries are known to be among the biggest in the world.

The history of giant canary breeds dates back to the 16th century when Spanish sailors discovered the Canary Islands. It was during their expeditions that they came across these fascinating birds with their beautiful songs and vibrant plumage. Fascinated by their beauty and unique characteristics, the sailors brought the canaries back to Europe.

Once in Europe, the canaries quickly captivated the attention of bird enthusiasts and breeders. The breeders began experimenting with the birds, selecting those with larger bodies and breeding them to create larger-sized canaries. This process continued for many generations, resulting in the development of giant canary breeds that were significantly larger than their smaller counterparts.

The giant canary breeds, known for their impressive size, became popular not only for their striking appearance but also for their melodious songs. Their powerful voices gained them recognition as exceptional singers and made them the center of attention in bird shows and competitions.

Today, the most well-known giant canary breeds include the Yorkshire, the American Singer, and the Belgian Canary. These breeds have distinctive features and are sought after by bird enthusiasts and breeders around the world.

It is worth noting that while giant canary breeds stand out for their size, they require special care and attention. Their cages should be spacious enough to accommodate their large bodies, and they require a balanced diet to maintain their health and well-being.

Giant Canary Breed Origin
Yorkshire England
American Singer United States
Belgian Canary Belgium

In conclusion, the history and origins of giant canary breeds can be traced back to the discovery of the Canary Islands by Spanish sailors. Over the centuries, dedicated breeders have selectively bred these birds to create giant canaries that are both visually stunning and renowned for their songs. Today, these breeds continue to be cherished and admired by bird lovers worldwide.

Frequently Asked Questions About the Largest Canary in the World

1. What is the largest canary in the world?

The largest canary in the world is a special breed known as the Giant Canary. It is much larger than the average canary and has unique characteristics that set it apart.

2. How big can a Giant Canary grow?

A fully grown Giant Canary can reach up to 8 inches in length, making it significantly larger than the typical canary breeds. They also have a wingspan of about 10 inches.

3. What are the distinguishing features of the Giant Canary?

The Giant Canary has a larger body size, a big head, and a powerful beak. It has a unique plumage with vibrant colors, including yellow, orange, and red, making it a visually stunning bird.

4. Where is the Giant Canary originally from?

The Giant Canary is primarily found in the Canary Islands, which are located off the northwest coast of Africa. It is believed to have been selectively bred over many generations to reach its current size.

5. What is the temperament of the Giant Canary?

The Giant Canary is known to be a social and friendly bird. It can be trained to perform tricks and is often kept as a pet. It enjoys human interaction and can develop strong bonds with its owners.

6. Is the Giant Canary a good singer?

Yes, the Giant Canary has a melodious and captivating song. Its vocal abilities are highly prized, and it is often chosen for singing competitions. Its larger size gives its song a unique depth and resonance.

For any further questions or inquiries about the largest canary in the world, feel free to contact us.

Conservation Efforts and Challenges for the Giant Canary

As the biggest canary in the world, the Giant Canary is a species that requires special attention when it comes to conservation efforts. Its large size and unique characteristics make it both a symbol of biodiversity and a challenging species to protect.

Conservation Efforts

Due to its endangered status, several conservation initiatives have been implemented to protect the Giant Canary and its habitat. These efforts involve both local and international collaboration, aiming to create a sustainable future for this majestic bird.

One important aspect of the conservation efforts is the establishment of protected areas specifically designated for the Giant Canary. These areas provide a safe and undisturbed habitat for the species, ensuring its survival and allowing for its population to recover.

Additionally, conservation organizations work towards raising awareness about the importance of preserving the Giant Canary. Through educational campaigns and public outreach programs, they aim to inspire individuals and communities to take action and support the protection of this unique species.


Protecting the Giant Canary comes with its own set of challenges. The main challenge is the destruction and fragmentation of its natural habitat. Deforestation, urban expansion, and agricultural activities have all contributed to the loss of suitable habitats for the species.

Another challenge is the illegal trade of the Giant Canary. Due to its impressive size and striking appearance, there is a demand for this bird as a pet in some parts of the world. This illegal trade puts additional pressure on an already vulnerable species.

Climate change also poses a threat to the Giant Canary. Changes in temperature and rainfall patterns can disrupt its habitat and impact its food sources, leading to population decline and further endangering the species.

Conservation Efforts Challenges
– Establishment of protected areas – Destruction and fragmentation of habitat
– Awareness campaigns – Illegal trade
– Climate change

Despite these challenges, ongoing conservation efforts give hope for the future of the Giant Canary. By addressing these issues and working together, we can ensure the survival of this magnificent species and preserve its place in our natural world.


What is the largest canary in the world?

The largest canary in the world is the Serinus canaria, also known as the Atlantic canary.

Where is the Serinus canaria native to?

The Serinus canaria is native to the Canary Islands, which are located off the northwest coast of Africa.

How big can the Serinus canaria get?

The Serinus canaria can grow up to 6.7 inches (17 centimeters) in length.

What is the average life span of a Serinus canaria?

The average life span of a Serinus canaria is around 10-15 years.

Are Serinus canaria popular as pets?

Yes, Serinus canaria are popular as pets because of their beautiful singing and vibrant plumage.

What is the largest canary in the world?

The largest canary in the world is the Harz roller canary.

How big can a Harz roller canary grow?

A Harz roller canary can grow up to 18 centimeters in length.

What is special about the Harz roller canary?

The Harz roller canary is known for its unique ability to sing. It has a melodious and continuous song that can last for several minutes without a pause.